Birding 'Twixt Europe & Asia

A 10-day, small group birdwatching tour to Armenia

Lying to the south of Georgia, and cradling the Caucasus Mountains, Armenia forms a bridge between Europe and Asia. Its scenery is spectacular - and its bird list is long, with a rich mix of species from both continents... Caspian Snowcock, Caucasian Grouse, White-tailed Lapwing, Armenian Gull, Radde's Accentor, White-throated Robin and Grey-necked Bunting await! Staying at good hotels, our spring birdwatching tour to Armenia will also take in some of the country’s rich history along the way, notably the ancient standing stones at Karahunge – one of the wonders of the prehistoric world. Join us in Armenia for a Caucasian birding adventure!

Tour Dates & Prices

Mon 17th May 2021

Wed 26th May 2021

  • Booking Closed

Tour Cost: 10 Days from £2995* includes return flights from London Heathrow

Deposit: £400Single Supp: £200*Land Only: £2495*Group Size: 10Leaders:  Brian Small & local guides
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* 2020 tour costs shown. Please note costs for our 2021 tour TBA (available summer 2020)

What's Included?

  • Limosa Tour Leader
  • English-speaking Armenian bird guide
  • Return flights - London Heathrow-Yerevan, with Air France
  • 9 nights accommodation in Armenia
  • All main meals (with drinking water provided)
  • Minibus and 4WD transport
  • All excursions, permits/entry fees, tourbased tips and taxes
  • Map & Limosa checklist of birds

Cost Excludes

Insurance, drinks, airport meals/snacks and other items of a personal nature. [Visa not required]

View or Download Tour Info Pack


The Land Only cost is the price you will pay if you choose to arrange your own flights

Tour Highlights

  • Brilliant birding ‘twixt Europe and Asia, including many ‘bucket list’ specialities
  • Caspian Snowcock, Caucasian Grouse and Radde’s Accentor in the spectacular Caucasus
  • Nesting Eastern & Western Rock Nuthatches, White-throated Robin, Pale Rockfinch
  • Displaying Bimaculated Larks, Red-tailed [Persian] and Finsch’s Wheatears, Grey-necked Bunting
  • White-tailed Lapwing, Armenian Gull, Upcher's, Ménétries's and Green Warblers... and more!
  • Visit to the dramatic prehistoric “speaking stones” at Karahunge
  • Small group tour - maximum of 8-10 participants plus guides
  • Expertly led by Limosa's Brian Small and an English-speaking Armenian bird guide

Outline Itinerary

  • Fly London to Paris and onward to Yerevan (Armenia). Yerevan (2 nts)

  • Armash Fishponds.

  • Pambak Mountains for Caucasian Grouse, Dilijan Forest & Haghartsin Monastery. Night Dilijan

  • Early morning Dilijan Forest. Drive to Yeghegnadzor in Vayots dzor, visiting Lake Sevan and Vardenyats pass. Yeghegnadzor (2 nts)

  • Early start to Gndasar for Caspian Snowcock, then Noravank gorge.

  • We head into southern Armenia, taking in the Spandarian reservoir, Karahunge and Goris. Night Goris

  • To Khndzoresk then north to Gorhayq Village, Zedea and Yeghegnadzor. Night Yeghegnadzor

  • Return to Yerevan via Vedi Gorge and Ooranots. Yerevan (2 nts)

  • Mt Aragats and Amberd Fortress

  • Fly Yerevan to London (via Paris)

Trip Info
Eastern Rock Nuthatch Armenia Daniel Kuehler Caucasus Wildlife Tours.jpg
The flaring black eye-stripe of an Eastern Rock Nuthatch looks rather different to Western © Daniel Kuehler, Caucasus Wildlife Tours

Biogeographically, Armenia forms a bridge between Europe and Asia and boasts a wealth of different habitats including meadows and alpine grasslands, wetlands, deciduous forest, semi-desert and steppe. Its population of fewer than 3 million people is even lower than neighbouring Georgia and many rural areas remain unspoilt by the agricultural ‘advances’ of modern farming. Spectacularly scenic, and largely at an altitude above 900 metres (3000ft), the Transcaucasian mountain landscape is cut by riverine canyons, dotted with lakes, wetlands and marshes, and strewn with rocks and scree - much of it in spring carpeted with a multitude of wildflowers.

Any birder visiting Armenia will appreciate these wild and natural landscapes, though in the past this meant that available accommodation was simple. Nowadays, the country's hotels and infrastructure are much improved - and when added to the amazing list of birds to be seen in Armenia, which reads like a ‘bucket list’ of sought-after species, our ten-day spring tour to this dramatic country will be a revelation!

Top of the most visiting birders' lists will be Caspian Snowcock and Caucasian Grouse, closely followed by Radde's Accentor, Red-tailed and Finsch’s Wheatears, White-throated Robin, Ménétries's Warbler, Eastern Rock Nuthatch, Asian Crimson-winged Finch and Grey-necked Bunting - and not forgetting the likes of White-tailed Lapwing, Bimaculated Lark, Upcher’s Warbler, Semicollared Flycatcher and flocks of Rosy Starlings, too!

Armenia’s tantalising ‘star line-up’ is more than ably supported by a cast of other superb birds, including many that are hard to see elsewhere - and certainly not all on one tour like this! Wetlands, such as the Armash Fishponds, may produce breeding White-headed Duck, Pygmy Cormorant, Collared Pratincole and Armenian Gull, as well as Little Crake and migrant terns. Mountains and meadows host ‘Caucasian’ Horned Lark, 'Caucasian' Water Pipit, Alpine Accentor and White-winged Snowfinch, while the country's arid steppe and semi-desert landscapes harbour Wallcreeper, Trumpeter Finch and the desirable Pale Rockfinch, plus a wealth of fine wheatears.

There are rich pickings here and above the unspoilt steppe and mountains, raptors abound: in May, we should find Lesser Spotted, Golden, Booted and Eastern Imperial Eagles, while Lammergeier, and Egyptian and Griffon Vultures scour the slopes for dead sheep. Levant Sparrowhawk, Lesser Kestrel, Short-toed Snake Eagle and harriers are also possible in spring.

Remarkably, there's yet more for us to find! Amid the beech forests of Dilijan National Park we may be lucky with singing Red-breasted Flycatchers, Green Warblers and Common Rosefinches, while rocky canyons harbour both Eastern and Western Rock Nuthatches, and an exultation of larks sings above the stony steppe.

Following the great success of our birding tours to Georgia, Armenia makes yet another exciting addition to the Limosa programme. Increasingly well known as a birding destination, recently the road network and accommodation has improved and you will find that the two tours complement each other very nicely. Some species will require a little effort, and to find the specialist upland birds we might have to walk for an hour or so into mountains. We cover a large part of the country during this comprehensive spring tour and you will leave with the sense of having experienced the 'true' Armenia and its birdlife.

Armenia is a cradle of early civilisation, with numerous ancient sites - none more atmospheric than that of Karahunge. Any visit here is spine-tingling as one wanders amongst a dramatic area of standing stones older than Stonehenge, the stones roughly hewn to align with astronomical points. Christianity, too, has left its mark with many early Christian treasures, churches, relics and monasteries. Our focus is on birding, but we will visit some of these early sites along the way - without losing important birding time.

Guide Brian Small devised and led our hugely popular 2017 and 2018 tours to the neighbouring country of Georgia and has excellent experience of Eurasian and Western Palearctic birds. He will be accompanied throughout our May 2020 and 2021 tours to Armenia by an experienced English-speaking Armenian bird tour guide.

Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Armenia Daniel Kuehler Caucasus Wildlife Tours.jpg
Blue-cheeked Bee-eaters breed at the Armash Fishponds south of the capital, Yerevan © Daniel Kuehler, Caucasus Wildlife Tours

Day 1
Our spring birdwatching tour to Armenia begins with an Air France flight from London Heathrow to Paris and onward connection from there to Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, where we arrive a little after midnight. Welcomed by our local guide and driver we transfer the short distance to our comfortable and modern city hotel, where we stay two nights. Night Yerevan

Day 2
After breakfast in Yerevan, we drive south through agricultural fields for about 50 minutes to reach the extensive area of fishponds at Armash. A small but rich area for a large variety of birds, it is good to visit Armash early in the trip as migrants pass through in great numbers. We have a whole day to take in and enjoy one of the ‘ornithological hot spots’ of the Caucasus!

Lying just to east of the Agri Dagi National Park and snow-capped Mount Ararat - which is actually inside neighbouring Turkey - the Armash fishponds in May can be alive with wetland birds especially. The mix of pools, natural saline marsh, water-filled ditches, freshwater ponds and warm springs has created a habitat that acts as a magnet for birds. Over 200 species have been recorded here and, in spring, migrants use it as they head north. White-winged and Gull-billed Terns dance over the wetlands, picking insects or fish from thepools, and waders can include Black-tailed Godwit along with Little and Temminck’s Stints, Wood, Marsh and Curlew Sandpipers, and small numbers of Red-necked Phalaropes. Collared Pratincoles are regular in May, when there is also a chance of rarer waders such as Broad-billed and Terek Sandpipers - as well as White-tailed Lapwing, which breeds here. Waterbirds are plentiful, too and we are also likely to see Pygmy Cormorant, Greater Flamingo, Little Bittern, Squacco and Purple Herons, Garganey, Red-crested Pochard and Ferruginous Duck - perhaps even the occasional Little Crake.

In the surrounding reeds and bushes, other species can be equally impressive. We will keep our eyes open for colourful Blue-cheeked Bee-eaters and European Rollers, as wetland warblers sing: Great Reed Warblers croak their reluctant song and Paddyfield Warblers can be found lurking in the reeds alongside Savi's, Eurasian Reed and Sedge Warblers, too. At times, we really may not know what to look at next as species such as Lesser Short-toed Lark, Bearded Reedling, Ménétries's Warbler and Rosy Starling also vie for our attention.

Time permitting, a visit to nearby rocky hills offers our first chance to look for Finsch’s and Isabelline Wheatears, plus Asian Crimson-winged Finch. After all this excitement we head back to our hotel at Yerevan for a good lie down– and this is just the first day! Night Yerevan

Day 3
We have an early breakfast and departure from Yerevan today, initially making an hour-long drive up into the higher areas of the rounded Tsakhkunyats Mountains - still blotched with snow, even in May.

The slopes near Hankavan are a great place to look for Caucasian Grouse. During the first two hours of the day, they strut about the grassy areas, with the scattered males leaping into the air in display or chasing about their territories. 'Caucasian' Water Pipits are quite common here and we have our first chances of seeing both Radde's and Alpine Accentors, dapper Siberian Stonechats of the Armenian race variegatus, pale Twite and Mountain Chiffchaffs in the bushes that dot the hillsides. White-throated Dipper inhabit the fast-flowing streams.

Late morning, we continue our journey northeast, north of Lake Sevan, into the ancient beech-clad hills around the Achstev River valley town of Dilijan. Amidst the mixed beech and oak forests of the Dilijan National Park we have chances to look for several species not found in the more open arid landscapes of the latter part of our tour. Green Warblers, and Semicollared and Red-breasted Flycatchers utter their simple songs in the aquarium light of the woods, whilst Steppe Buzzards, European Honey Buzzards and Levant Sparrowhawks soar above the slopes. Woodpeckers here could include Middle and Lesser Spotted, Green and the crow-like Black, and we'll listen out for the high-pitched calls of Hawfinch and the fluting song of Golden Oriole.

During the afternoon we will pay a visit to Haghartsin Monastery - built in the 13th centuryand set amongst the woods - for a walk and more chances to scan for raptors, which could also include Lesser Spotted Eagle. Night Dilijan

Day 4
We will take an early stroll in the lovely beechwoods about Dilijan this morning, enjoying a final opportunity to see Semicollared Flycatcher and Green Warbler, before following the western edge of Lake Sevan south and onward to our destination this evening, Yeghegnadzor.

Lake Sevan is situated in Armenia's picturesque Gegharkunik Province, which is sandwiched between Yerevan to the west and the disputed territory of Nagorno Karabakh to the east. At 2000m (c6500ft), it is one of the highest altitude freshwater lakes in the world. Beneath its surface lie numerous archaeological artefacts, but today we will be most interested in what lies above...

Exploring the western shoreline and marshes, much of the area might appear ‘degraded’, with scattered bushes - but in fact it holds a wealth of birdlife. Tree Pipit, Black-headed Wagtail, Zitting Cisticola and Common Quail can be seen or heard, and further along the road we will stop at the causeway overlooking the waters of the lake. Reflecting the blue sky, the surface can be dotted with Great Crested Grebe, Gadwall and Garganey; marshy areas attract Glossy Ibis, Black-headed Gull and Little Grebe, whilst at ‘Gull Island’ - a protected part of Lake Sevan – hundreds of Armenian Gulls will be nesting. It's a busy site and we will check other spots along the shore for Great Cormorant, Ruddy Shelduck, Black-crowned Night and Squacco Herons, Red-crested Pochard and maybe a whisp of White-winged Terns will float by.

The limestone steppe holds Eurasian Skylark and Northern Wheatear while along the main roads, areas of grasses, rocky outcrops and birch and willow scrub attract Long-legged Buzzards searching for prey. Common Whitethroat and Grasshopper Warbler can sometimes be found.

As we head south towards the Vardenyats Pass, the lower grassland habitats harbour Marsh Harrier, European Roller, European Turtle and Eurasian Collared Doves. The pass lies along the old Armenian Silk Road and the Orbelian Caravanserai (an inn for travellers and their animals as they journeyed the silk route to China) is worth a stop, too. At the summit, we might find a singing Ortolan Bunting or stunning male Common Rock Thrush - but our real targets here will be another chance to look for Radde's Accentor, White-winged Snowfinch and Bluethroat.

Finally, we descend to Yeghednadzor, a town known for its wineries. Stops en route could well produce Golden Eagle or Eastern Black-eared Wheatears in song as they perch on earth mounds. We should arrive late afternoon at our hotel in town, where again we settle in for a two-night stay - and perhaps enjoy a glass or two of the local wine! Night Yeghednadzor

Day 5
A long and spectacular day is in store - so we hope for fine weather - as we depart our hotel inYeghednadzor early this morning (05:00hrs) and travel by 4WD vehicles along a rough track into the mountains. The peak of Gndasar rises to 2945m (c9600ft), and we head up to the higher reaches in search of Caspian Snowcock, Alpine Accentor and White-winged Snowfinch.

We have breakfast in the field and stroll up the slopes to check out the bushes dotting the meadows of the beautiful upper reaches of the mountain for 'Caucasian' Water Pipit and Common Rock Thrush. We have good chances of finding Caspian Snowcock up here, but will have to scan from a distance as they inhabit the wildest parts of the cliffs. Other species we hope to see on the slopes of Mount Gndasar include Asian Crimson-winged Finch and the white-winged form of Ring Ouzel, amicorum. If we are lucky, we might spot a Bezoar Ibex on the sheer cliff faces, showing off its climbing skills - not to mention its enormous curving horns!

As we return to Yeghednadzor, we'll pass Noravank monastery, located in a narrow gorge made by the Darichay River close to the city of Yeghegnadzor, and which dates from the 13th century. The gorge is well known for the sheer, brick-red cliffs facing the monastery from across the valley. Whilst some may prefer a walk at St Astvatsatsin Church, others may wish to check out the area around it for birds: Red-fronted Serins sit about the rocks and walls, where we may also find both Eastern and Western Rock Nuthatches. Upcher’s Warblers and White-throated Robins skulk in the bushes, and scanning the skies could produce Golden Eagle and Lammergeier. Night Yeghednadzor

Day 6
Departing Yeghegnadzor, we head southeast today, moving into drier and mountainous areas. We’ll stop beside the reservoir at Spandarian, with waterfowl on offer as well as Lesser Kestrel and possibly Asian Crimson-winged Finch.

We will also take time to visit the incredible megalithic site of Karahunge, a truly remarkable place scattered with 'speaking stones'. Recent studies of this site - which dates back to 7500BC - have shown that the mysterious, misshapen stones are actually the world's first astronomical observatory. Here, solar and lunar eclipses were correctly predicted by as many as 84 stones marked with carefully prepared holes measuring 4-5 centimetres in diameter that point in different directions toward the horizon and outer space. Though not a bird, our visit to this remarkable prehistoric site will no doubt be one of the highlights of the trip!

As we enjoy this ancient landscape, we will of course be keeping an eye out for birds - including larks, pipits and buntings, but also raptors, the frosty brevirostris race of Twite, Common Rosefinch and Red-backed Shrike.

Finally, we head into Goris, a small town surrounded by the Zangezur Mountains, ready for dinner at our hotel and to prepare for our return journey north tomorrow. Night Goris

Day 7
Before departing the Syunik region, this morning we will drive the short distance east to the village of Khndzoresk, famous for its historic cave village. Located on the steep slope of a gorge, this complex of both natural and manmade dwellings carved out of the soft rock was once home to an estimated 15,000 people! The village even had two churches and three schools and, remarkably, the cave dwellings were inhabited until as late as the 1950s. Nowadays empty and simply grazed by sheep, Khndzoreskis a great spot for raptors and we will hope for Eastern Imperial and Steppe Eagle.

If we were not successful on our drive to Goris, we will stop again at Gorhayq village to look again for Asian Crimson-winged Finch.

Approaching Yeghegnadzor, we will turn off along a minor road towards the village of Zedea. Stopping to walk into the arid valley of the Arpa River, which parallels the road, we’ll check the bushes for a good selection of species. Eastern Black-eared Wheatears sing from the scrub, and perhaps a Short-toed Snake Eagle or Levant Sparrowhawk will fly over. But our main reason for stopping here is the chance of finding a superb male White-throated Robin or two along the river bed. On the side of the valley we might also encounter both Western and Eastern Rock Nuthatches. Sometimes their old nests may be taken over by Rock Sparrows. Trumpeter Finches feed on the grassy slopes and we will listen out for the songs of Upcher’s and Eastern Olivaceous Warblers.

From here it is only a short drive back to Yeghegnadzor, where this time we stay for one night. Night Yeghegnadzor

Day 8
After breakfast we promptly begin our journey back to the capital Yerevan, crossing the very arid landscape before stopping as we drop down to the town of Vedi. This can be a great spot to find the localised Grey-necked Bunting, but we will need to arrive fairly early as temperatures rise quickly. A walk into a dry, sandy canyon will hopefully produce one or two buntings plus more chances of Isabelline and Finsch’s Wheatears – the latter, in the opinion of some of some birders, the finest of all the wheatears. Also possible here are Eastern Rock Nuthatch, Blue Rock Thrush and singing Bimaculated Larks performing their bat-like display flights.

The whole area around Vedi and Oooranots (just to the south, near Armash) is good for birds typical of semi-desert environs. Indeed, though the landscape is barren, the birdlife is certainly not! Eastern and Western Rock Nuthatches, Woodchat and Red-backed Shrikes, Eastern Orphean, Eastern Olivaceous and Upcher's Warblers, Red-tailed Wheatear and Red-fronted Serin occur - and we have further chances of Grey-headed, plus Black-headed and Rock Buntings, too. Trumpeter Finch and Rosy Starling might also entertain us as we listen out for the strident song of Pale Rockfinch.

In the late afternoon, we make the hour-long drive north once more to Yerevan, where we spend our last two nights. Night Yerevan

Day 9
After breakfast we are off again, this time heading north from the city into the mountains with our final destination being the massif of Mount Aragats. Rising to over 4000m (over 13000ft), it is likely to have plenty of snow on its slopes, so wrap up warmly! Emerging above the treeline, we head to the sub-alpine zone in search of the fine 'Caucasian' Horned Lark, Alpine Accentor and White-winged Snowfinch. Asian Crimson-winged Finch also occurs and the localised Radde’s Accentor inhabits open areas with Juniper scrub beside the road. En route, we may well have found Rock Bunting and raptors in the guise of Long-legged Buzzard, and Booted or Lesser Spotted Eagles. Other birds to watch for here include White-throated and Rufous Scrub Robins, Isabelline Wheatear, Black-headed Bunting and Lesser Grey Shrike.

Continuing, we visit the imposing Amberd Burgh, a fortress originally constructed in the 7th Century (but rebuilt in the 11th) on the site of a Stone Age settlement. At 2300m (c7500ft), the name translates as 'Fortress in the Clouds' - it certainly makes a stunning location for lunch, and one where we may see 'Caucasian' Water Pipit, Black Redstart, Common Rock Thrush, and Ortolan and Rock Buntings.

With an early flight home the next day, we will descend from Mount Aragats mid-afternoon and return to Yerevan to enjoy our final evening at the hotel. Night Yerevan

Day 10
Based on current flight schedules, we make an early departure from our hotel this morning for the short drive back to Yerevan airport. Check-in for our early morning (05.30am) Air France flight back to Paris with onward connection to London Heathrow, where our Armenian birdwatching adventure concludes this afternoon.

Semi-collared Flycatcher Armenia Daniel Kuehler Caucasus Wildlife Tours.jpg
In the green light of beech woodland near Dilijan, a male Semicollared Flycatcher © Daniel Kuehler, Caucasus Wildlife Tours

(2020 tour) Max 8 participants & 2 leaders

Our tour to the Armenian Caucasus is timed to run during the second half of May, when key local birds will be establishing territories, but when migration is still ongoing. There can be patches of snow at higher altitudes whilst in the semi-desert it will be pleasantly warm.

Birding in the mountains will require some physical effort so a reasonable degree of fitness is required for this tour.

We shall naturally want to make the most of our days at the peak of early morning bird activity, so breakfast will be taken around 6:30-7:00am on most mornings. We will make a couple of much earlier starts (leaving the hotel at 5:00am on one day) in order to travel and arrive on site to look for Caspian Snowcock and Caucasian Grouse while the birds are still active. 4WD transport will be provided to take the group to the higher valleys and vantage points to reduce the need for any strenuous walking, as local conditions allow.

Our longest day’s drive will be 160km - from Dilijan to Yeghegnadzor via Lake Sevan - but we have all day to make it and will stop regularly.

We visit a range of altitudes and habitats on this tour, so expect to experience a difference in climate between the montane regions and the steppe/semi-desert areas. At altitude in the mountains, the weather in late May is cold-cool and changeable, with the winter snows beginning to melt. Daytime temperatures here typically vary from 5-15°C (41-59F). The southern steppes in May will be warmer, with periods of sun, but can also be more overcast with the prospect of some showery rain. In May, temperatures range between 16-26C (61-79F) at Vedi, for example. It can still feel cool in Southern Armenia, especially at night. There is a high chance of some precipitation on this tour (most likely falling as rain, but snow is still possible in the mountains.)

150-180 species

5-10 species

9 nights accommodation in Armenia, including 4 nights at a modern hotel in the capital Yerevan (two at the start of our tour and two at the end). We spend three nights at Yeghegnadzor (two as we head south and one returning north), and have one-night stops at Dilijan and at Goris. All the hotels are good, comfortable and modern with good restaurants. All rooms have en suite facilities.

All main meals are included in the tour price, commencing with breakfast on the morning of Day 2 (or dinner on the evening of Day 1, depending on flight schedules and our arrival time in Yerevan), and concluding with dinner in Yerevan on the evening of Day 9. Lunches will be a mix of picnics and sit-down meals according to weather and location; there will also be one or two picnic breakfasts on this tour

For the most part, walking effort will be easy to moderate, but please note on Day 5 on Mount Gndasar there will necessarily be a degree of longer, more strenuous uphill walking to find Caspian Snowcock. We will be taking things slowly with plenty of time for breaks. Wear sturdy waterproof walking shoes or boots with stout corrugated soles for good grip.

We spend our time between 900m (c2900ft) and 3000m (c8200-9800ft), depending on snow conditions and access at the time of our visit.

There are no direct flights from the UK to Armenia, and the choice of carriers is also limited. We fly with Air France from London Heathrow-Yerevan, which involves only a single stop in each direction (change of planes in Paris). Based on current airline schedules, flight sarrive in Armenia a little after midnight and depart again early morning (about 5.30am).

Ground Transport By minibus, switching to 4WD vehicles where necessary.

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