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Colombia Andes & Santa Marta

A 15-day birdwatching tour to Colombia

Limosa’s Colombia birding tour is an adventure that begins in the High Andes near Bogotá, searching for rare endemics and specialities such as Bogotá Rail, Turquoise Dacnis and Black-chested Mountain Tanager. From there, we fly north to Colombia’s Caribbean coast and travel inland to explore the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta - one of the world’s endemic hotspots - and where the highpoint of our birdwatching tour to Colombia will be a three-night stay at the remote El Dorado Lodge, seeking many unique species. With more than 1900 species recorded, Colombia’s bird list is the largest for any country in the world... up to a quarter of which we should see on this superb two-week bird tour to Colombia!

Tour Dates

2020

Spaces
10

Leaders
Richard Thaxton
local guides

Max Group Size: 10
Duration: 15 Days

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Cost: £4995

inc return flights from London to Bogota, with Lufthansa or British Airways, and Colombia domestic flights

Deposit: £600

Single Supp: £325
Land Only: £4195

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flame faced tanager colombia 2015 Brian Small

Wow! Flame-faced Tanager at Laguna Pedro Palo - contender for 'bird of the trip' on our previous Colombia tours! © Brian Small, Limosa Holidays

As a birdwatching destination, Colombia has become one of the must-visit countries in South America - and its bird list of more than 1900 species is the largest for any country in the world! Among them is a quite remarkable array of Colombian endemic or near endemic species, many of which still await formal ratification. Limosa’s exciting, 15-day tour focuses on the two key areas of central and northern Colombia, and commences with five days near the capital Bogotá, on the eastern slope of the Andes, where we make visits to local marshes for the endemic Bogotá Rail and Apolinar Wren.  

To the west of Bogotá, where we begin our tour, Chicaque National Park and the Laguna Pedro Palo are home to a plethora of hummingbirds, tanagers, flycatchers, spinetails and thrushes. Here we could find the endangered Turquoise Dacnis and the fabulous Flame-faced Tanager, Mountain Velvetbreast, Black Inca and Pearled Treerunner, while gaudy Bay-headed, Grass-green and Blue-and-black Tanagers adorn the trees. Northwest of Bogotá, at Laguna de Tabacal we look for Spectacled Parrotlet, Rusty-breasted Antpitta and the odd Rosy Thrush-tanager, along with White-bellied, Dusky and Jet Antbirds.

To the east of the capital, Chingaza National Park harbours the endemic Brown-breasted Parakeet and a wealth of near endemic and localised species, including Bronze-tailed Thornbill, Coppery-bellied Puffleg, Matorral Tapaculo and Rufous-browed Conebill. Many have unique forms and, such is the interest in Colombian birds, some could well turn out to be species in their own right - birds like the Rufous Antpitta, a vocally distinct but undescribed subspecies.

During our time in the central Andes, we should also encounter a good range of high elevation species: Shining Sunbeam, Great Sapphirewing, Crimson-mantled Woodpecker, Rufous Wren, Black-headed Hemispingus and a myriad of gorgeous tanagers that could include Golden-crowned Tanager, plus Scarlet-bellied, Black-chested and Buff-breasted Mountain Tanagers.

Leaving Bogotá, a flight then carries us 700km north to Colombia's Caribbean coast, where we spend some time looking for coastal scrub species. Russet-throated Puffbird, Whooping Motmot, Scrub Greenlet, Black-crested Antshrike and the endemic Chestnut-winged Chachalaca are possible here before we leave the coastal lowlands and start to climb up into the hills on our way to Minca. Hummingbird feeders around the lodge offer the prospect of Rufous-breasted and Pale-bellied Hermits, and White-necked Jacobin. Birding at Minca is always exciting, with chances of Black-backed Antshrike, Cinereous Becard and (with a little luck) Military Macaws coming in to roost – we have seen a flock of up to 100 of the latter!

The highest mountains in all Colombia are also found here, with permanently snow-capped peaks rising to 5700m (18,700ft) - although we shall be birding at rather lower elevations than this, up to 2500m (8,200ft). Completely isolated from the Andes, the slopes of the impressive Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range are a noted hotspot for endemic species. Our destination here is El Dorado, a reserve set up specially to protect the many unique birds of the region.

With three nights based at this splendid lodge, we will search the breathtaking mountains for a host of localised specialities, too numerous to mention here! White-tipped Quetzal, Golden-breasted Fruiteater, Santa Marta Blossomcrown and Lazuline Sabrewing are among many treats in store, while on another day we might find the likes of Santa Marta Antbird, Santa Marta Tapaculo, White-lored Warbler and Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner. The garden of our remarkable wooden lodge adds chances of Black-fronted Wood Quail on the compost heap, with Santa Marta and Sierra Nevada Brush Finches, White-tailed Starfrontlet and Santa Marta Woodstar visiting the feeders, and the emerald-green Santa Marta Toucanet coming to the fruit table.

Leaving El Dorado, we return to Santa Marta city and follow the coast road back to Barranquilla, stopping to look for roosting flocks of terns and shorebirds on the beach, with hulking Brown Pelicans and menacing Magnificent Frigatebirds overhead. We fly back to Bogotá and one last look at the marshes for Bogotá Rail, before our flight home to London.

Colombia is a magnificent and incredibly bird-rich country, with much to see and learn. Share the exploration and experience with us!

Guide Richard Thaxton has good experience of birding in Central and South America, including trips to Colombia, Ecuador, Galapagos, Guyana, Brazil, Trinidad (9 times) and Tobago. He travelled to Colombia on our 2015, 2016 and 2018 tours, and this 2020 tour will be his fourth visit there for Limosa. Richard will be assisted throughout our Colombia tour by a specialist English-speaking local bird guide.

rufous wren colombia 2015 Brian Small

Large and chunky, a wonderful Rufous Wren at Chingaza © Brian Small, Limosa Holidays

Day 1            
FLY LONDON-BOGOTÁ
Our birdwatching tour to Colombia begins with a scheduled flight from London today, bound for Bogotá. Evening arrival in Bogotá, where we meet up with our local guide. Night Bogotá

Days 2 - 3
BOGOTÁ MARSHES, LAGUNA DE PEDRO PALO
Bogotá stands at an elevation of 2640m (8660ft). With our body clocks kicking in early, we’ll rise early and make our first visit to La Florida and the famous Bogotá marshes, looking for the endangered Bogotá Rail, which is most active first thing in the morning.

The open, urban wetlands of Bogotá boast an endemic avifauna that also includes the near-threatened Subtropical Doradito and Apolinar's Wren. The few wetlands that still exist in and around the capital are extremely threatened habitats in Colombia and the populations of several endemic species there have declined significantly. Noble Snipe, Spot-flanked Gallinule and Andean Ruddy Duck are possible, and Yellow-hooded Blackbirds are usually easily seen. Silvery-throated Spinetail and Rufous-browed Conebill may also be found in the surrounding eucalypts and parkland, while Brown-bellied Swallows zap overhead and the very common Great Thrush jumps about on the ground.

To help with acclimatisation, we then leave Bogotá and descend to around 1400m (4,600ft) for a two-night stay near Anapoima, which lies about 60km west of the Colombian capital. The grounds of our hotel hold an array of birds and a late afternoon walk here should produce Vermilion Flycatcher, Scrub and Blue-necked Tanagers, Common Tody-flycatcher and Thick-billed Euphonia.  

The Laguna de Pedro Palo is a municipal reserve just a short distance away. A walk along the quiet track can be good for euphonias and a veritable artist's palette of tanagers, including Crimson-backed, Flame-faced, Black-capped, Fawn-breasted, Bay-headed, Beryl-spangled, Golden and Lemon-rumped! The area is also notable for near-endemics such as White-throated Toucanet, Moustached Brush Finch, Ash-browed and Stripe-breasted Spinetails, and Rufous-naped Greenlet. The endangered, endemic Turquoise Dacnis and the tricky Black Inca can sometimes be found here, too.

We'll break at a nearby restaurant, perhaps enjoying a traditional Colombian Paisa lunch - of beans and rice, pork and banana - before continuing our birding. Mixed feeding flocks could produce the likes of Acorn Woodpecker, Olivaceous Piculet, Montane Foliage-gleaner, Brown-capped Vireo, the splendid Red-headed Barbet and Azara’s Spinetail. Dense forest patches might reveal Moustached Puffbird and lowland Grey-breasted Wood Wren, as well as Whiskered and Speckle-breasted (Colombian) Wrens. Two nights Toscana Ecolodge, Anapoima

Day 4
CHICAQUE NATURAL PARK
Leaving our lodge early this morning, we drive  the relatively short distance back to Bogotá. En route we may well stop again near Laguna de Pedro Palo and have a second try for Black Inca or Turquoise Dacnis if we missed them before. Continuing, we’ll bird the approach road and hummingbird feeders at Chicaque Natural Park, on the edge of the Bogotá Plateau.

There are some excellent hummingbird feeders near the reserve centre, attractive to dazzling Glowing Pufflegs, Mountain Velvetbreast with its thin, decurved bill, aggressive Sparkling and Lesser Violetears, smart Collared Incas and the incomparable Golden-bellied Starfrontlet, another Colombian near-endemic. This whole area can often be shrouded in fog and low cloud, but as we sit back and enjoy the frenetic  hummingbird show we can keep ourselves warm with steaming mugs of hot chocolate - another great Colombian tradition!
 
As we explore the entrance road we should be treated to good views of several fine olive-backed brushfinches, among them Moustached, Pale-naped, Grey-browed and Chestnut-capped. Other species typical of the cloudforest here include Brown-billed Scythebill, Pearled Treerunner and Smoky-brown Woodpecker, with Black-eared, Black-capped and Oleaginous Hemispingus in the understorey. We also have good chances of finding the diminutive Ashy-headed Tyrannulet, Variegated Bristle Tyrant, Chestnut-crowned Antpitta and the speckle-breasted Bronzy Inca, and can at least hope to hear furtive Ash-coloured and Blackish Tapaculos. Colombia boasts a fantastic list of tanagers and yet more are present here: Grass-green, Blue-and-black and White-capped star, while Black-crested Warblers and the beautiful Golden-fronted Whitestart have a penchant for flowering shrubs.

In the afternoon, we continue onwards to Bogotá for a three-night stay. Night Bogotá

Days 5-6
CHINGAZA NATIONAL PARK, LAGUNA DE TABACAL & 'JARDIN ENCANTANDO' HUMMINGBIRD GARDENS

We spend these two days exploring the highlands around Bogotá, taking in the high elevation paramo at Chingaza and Laguna de Tabacal in the Magdalena Valley, and an incredible hummingbird garden near San Francisco de Sales. With an eye to the weather, we will choose the best day to visit Chingaza.

An early departure takes us east from Bogotá into the stunningly beautiful wilderness of montane forests and paramo that is Chingaza National Park. Located at an altitude of 3500m (11,500ft), it will be cold here first thing and we could experience weather ranging from thick fog through to glorious bright sunshine - and quite possibly both extremes on the same day!

We start our birding on the edge of the paramo, where low scrubby vegetation, bamboos and grasses mix. The most distinct plants are the Espeletia or ‘frailejones’ (‘big monks’), whose sunflower like blooms are so attractive to hummingbirds and flowerpiercers. We should soon be enjoying our first Glossy Flowerpiercers, while searching for 'hummers' should produce Great Sapphirewing, Tyrian Metaltail, Coppery-bellied Puffleg and 'glowing like the rising sun' Shining Sunbeam. With luck, a Bronze-tailed Thornbill may show up as well, with its little pointed ‘Elizabethan’ beard!

Excitement mounts as mixed feeding flocks surge past in waves, and we’ll be looking especially for the lovely Golden-fronted Whitestart (birds here have an all-white face), Black-headed Hemispingus, and Scarlet-bellied and Black-chested Mountain Tanagers. The dense undergrowth contains some serious skulkers, such as Rufous Antpitta, Matorral Tapaculo, Brown-backed and Rufous-breasted Chat-tyrants, and White-chinned Thistletail.

With such a variety of altitudinal habitats, we will be spending most of the day in the park, searching patches of temperate forest for the endemic Brown-breasted Parakeet and a long list of other goodies: the colourful Crimson-mantled Woodpecker, Black-billed Mountain Toucan, Black-collared Jay, White-banded Tyrannulet, Agile Tit-tyrant, Streak-throated and Smoky Bush Tyrants, Plushcap, Superciliaried Hemispingus, Rufous Wren, Blue-backed Conebill, Pale-naped and Slaty Brushfinches, Plumbeous Sierra Finch and the plump Red-crested Cotinga all await our discovery here.

Northwest of Bogotá, lie the steamy foothills and coffee plantations above the Magdalena Valley. A small but birdy patch of forest still survives on the steep hillsides around the enchanting Laguna de Tabacal. As soon as we arrive in the car park near the entrance to the lake, we have chances of Bar-crested Antshrike, Grey-throated Warbler and Spectacled Parrotlet - all Colombian near-endemics. A trio of antbirds - Jet, White-bellied and Dusky – also lurk about the bushes and leaf litter. We may not move too quickly as birds can come thick and fast!

In gardens near the entrance we may track down a Rufous-capped Warbler, and Blue-necked and Crimson-backed Tanagers. Amongst the more common species, including Red-crowned Woodpecker, Black-billed Thrush and Saffron Finch, we hope to find the unusual Rosy Thrush-tanager.

Walking the easy trail through the forest itself,  the avifauna changes again. The recently split Blue-lored Antbird, endemic colombianus race of Speckle-breasted Wren (another potential split) and Rusty-breasted Antpitta are possible and we should encounter a host of others, from Moustached Puffbird and Plain Antvireo to Red-billed Scythebill and maybe White-bearded Manakins at the lek. At the lake itself, we may find Neotropic Cormorant and Least Grebe, and have a good chance of White-throated Crake.

After lunch, we visit a private residence in the nearby small town of San Francisco de Sales. The 'Jardin Encantado' hummingbird garden is located next to a forested stream at 1500m (4,900ft) and is known for more than 20 species of hummingbird, among them the endemic Indigo-capped Hummingbird. Packed with an astounding 40 hummingbird feeders, we will spend a couple of hours in the garden, enjoying the amazing spectacle as literally hundreds of hummingbirds swirl in front of us in a frenzy of feeding activity! White-vented Plumeleteer, Rufous-tailed Hummingbird and Black-throated Mango are among commoner species to watch for, but we will also be keeping an eye out for the tiny, bee-like Gorgeted and White-bellied Woodstars, and the stunning Ruby Topaz. Restless Bananaquits and steel-blue and yellow Thick-billed Euphonias often pop down to see what is going on!

As we head back to Bogotá, we may have time to revisit La Florida for another chance of Bogotá Rail and Subtropical Doradito. Two nights Bogotá

Day 7
FLY NORTH, BOGOTÁ-BARRANQUILLA
We leave Bogotá this morning on a flight that carries us 700km north (approx. 90 minutes flying time), following the Magdalena River to its mouth at Barranquilla, on Colombia's Caribbean coast. Famous for its carnival, the lively city of Barranquilla sits close to open marshes and coastal lagoons and is the gateway to our own avian carnival of delights at Minca and beyond, in the lofty Santa Marta Mountains.

Birding on the Colombian coast is very different and very warm. After checking-in at our hotel we will visit some nearby scrub and, in the ‘cooling’ temperatures of late afternoon, try for the elusive endemic Chestnut-winged Chachalaca. Other new species to be found include Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, Yellow-breasted and Boat-billed Flycatchers, White-fringed Antwren, Black-crested Antshrike, Common Ground Dove and, with luck, Chestnut Piculet - an elfin rufous woodpecker with a speckled black cap. Northern Scrub Flycatcher, Yellow Oriole and Glaucous Tanager can also be seen. Night Barranquilla

Days 8-9
ISLA DE SALAMANCA & MINCA
Departing our hotel early, we make the short drive east of the city, crossing over the mighty Magdalena River - the longest in Colombia - to ‘Salamanca Island’, a narrow strip of land set between the Caribbean Sea and the vast system of freshwater lakes and marshes within Ciénaga Grande National Park.

The park protects mangrove habitats and coastal scrub; although the construction of the coastal highway between Santa Marta and Barranquilla has resulted in the degradation of large segments of mangroves, thankfully many still remain - notably around the visitor centre at Los Cocos. Birds to be seen on the saline ponds and lagoons within the park include Black-necked Stilt, Large-billed Tern and a wide range of other waders and shorebirds.

As the days here can be hot, we will visit the nearby marshes early - when they should be alive with birds. Stripe-backed Wren, Caribbean Hornero, Russet-throated Puffbird, and Spot-breasted and Lineated Woodpeckers are typical of the scrubby coastal habitat. Three species of kingfisher hunt the lagoons - Green, Amazon and Ringed - along with a plethora of herons and egrets, and up to three species of Whistling Duck. Small birds to watch for include White-headed Marsh Tyrant and Pied Water Tyrant, and we have a fair chance of finding Dwarf Cuckoo.

As the temperature starts to rise, we'll head to the shade of the mangroves in search of Golden-green Woodpecker, Pied Puffbird, Panama Flycatcher and Bicoloured Conebill. As well as the waterbirds, we target two hummingbirds: Sapphire-throated, and the endemic and critically endangered Sapphire-bellied. The former is common here, but the Sapphire-bellied is now extremely rare and only found in areas dominated by red and black mangroves.

Working our way east along the coast road through the Salamanca National Park, we'll pause to investigate any concentrations of waterbirds that we see. Yellow-billed and Gull-billed Terns are likely and our first ‘proper’ shorebirds should include Collared and Wilson’s Plover, and Willet. Lunch is taken beside the shore of the large seawater inlet, and from the restaurant we will see menacing Magnificent Frigatebirds and hulking Brown Pelicans, with chances of Arctic and Pomarine Skuas, too.

As the afternoon draws on, we begin to climb away from the humid heat of the Caribbean coast, up into the cooler and more pleasant foothills on our way to Minca. The waterfalls, river pools and shade coffee plantations here attract many birds, and our lovely Minca hotel sits in four acres of mature forest and gardens, with fruit and hummingbird feeders that lure many species. With today's travelling behind us, we will enjoy a restful late afternoon, with drink in hand, watching the hummingbird feeders. Possibilities include Steely-vented and Rufous-tailed Hummingbirds, Rufous-breasted and Pale-bellied Hermits, White-necked Jacobin, White-vented Plumleteer, Black-throated Mango and perhaps Long-billed Starthroat.

The next day, after breakfast at the hotel, we start our birding along a quiet back road above the town. At an altitude of 660m (2,100ft), the mosaic of dry forest scrub, shade coffee plantations and humid gullies hosts an impressive diversity of species. We should quickly find the noisy Speckle-breasted Wren and also hope to encounter Rufous-and-white Wren, with its ethereal song amongst the finest in the Neotropics.

A little further along the road, we will check for the colourful Golden-winged Sparrow (a near-endemic) and listen out for excited calls that mark the approach of mixed bird flocks that can hold Rufous-capped Warbler, Golden-fronted Greenlet and many tanagers. Smart Rosy Thrush-tanagers often sing noisily from the understorey - but obtaining views of these notorious skulkers can be difficult! Whooping Motmot and Rufous-tailed Jacamars are generally much more obliging, and we will also be on the lookout for Scaled Piculet, Cocoa and Streak-headed Woodcreepers, and Barred Antshrike. We also have a chance of seeing the large Military Macaw, a vulnerable and much-declined species threatened by deforestation.

Returning for lunch at our hotel in Minca will afford another opportunity to sit and enjoy the ceaseless comings and goings of hummingbirds as they visit the feeders. In the gardens of the hotel, we will also keep a look out for Orange-chinned Parakeet, Keel-billed Toucan, Tropical Pewee and Pale-breasted Thrush.

In the late afternoon, we visit an area of dry forest near the lodge Minca to look for Black-backed Antshrike and Cinereous Becard. Also occurring here are Crimson-crested Woodpecker and the scarce Black-and-white Seedeater, with Chestnut-collared Swifts overhead. Two nights Minca

Days 10 - 12
THE SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA
& EL DORADO
An isolated extension to the Andes, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is a triangle of uplands whose highest peaks are only 42km from the sea. Covering an area of 17,000 square km, the mountains rise like an island from the beaches of the Caribbean and the fertile coastal plain to form snow-capped peaks that attain an altitude of 5700m (18,700ft). In 1979, UNESCO declared the area as a Biosphere Reserve for its many unique species and our feet will be itching today to move from Minca up to the higher elevations in search of our first 'Santa Marta' endemics!

The road leading up to El Dorado Lodge is at times quite rocky, so we will need to switch to 4WD vehicles this morning in order to access the San Lorenzo ridge in the Santa Marta Mountains and reach our lodge for lunch. This forested area is the only easily accessible area of the entire range and is protected by a bird reserve that hosts all but a few of the much-coveted 'Santa Marta' endemics.

We will make one or two stops in the cooler mid-elevations on the way up as they can be good for a number of species, including the recently described Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner, Santa Marta Tapaculo (with its characteristic white spot on the forehead), and the recently split Santa Marta Antbird. We shall probably encounter our first Santa Marta Brush Finches, too. We will also be on the lookout for another recently split species, Coopman’s Tyrannulet, as well as the oft-elusive Coppery Emerald - two Colombian near-endemics.

On our first afternoon at El Dorado we will relax and take time to bird from the veranda of the spectacular wooden clad lodge. Located at an elevation of 1400m (4600ft) in the heart of the reserve, this enchanting spot commands an awesome view down over the forested slopes, all the way to the distant Caribbean - though our eyes may be distracted from this by the busy hummingbird feeders! The brilliant endemic White-tailed Starfrontlet, plentiful Crowned Woodnymphs, three species of violetear, the districta race of Tyrian Metaltail (a future probable split) and seasonal visitors, Santa Marta Woodstar and Lazuline Sabrewing, are all on the cards.

Not quite so picturesque (but equally attractive in its own way), the lodge's compost heap and feedings stations attract the otherwise very elusive Black-fronted Wood Quail, and Sierra Nevada Brush Finch. Emerald-green ‘Santa Marta Toucanets’ (still treated as part of the White-throated Toucanet complex) visit fruiting trees in the clearing and, as dusk approaches, surprisingly confiding Band-tailed and Sickle-winged Guans may emerge from the forest.

One morning, we will rise before dawn (5.00am) and drive up to the top of the ridge for a picnic breakfast. It’s only about 5km away, but the road is rough and even in 4WD vehicles it will take us a while to get there! Many of the Santa Marta endemics are to be found in the stunted forest up on the ridge. In the gloom of early morning, we may at first feel taunted by the soft whistles of a Santa Marta Bush Tyrant, calling invisibly nearby, but with improving light and increasing temperatures, things can get very busy indeed.

By arriving at the ridge-top for dawn, we will maximize our chances of connecting with the endemic Santa Marta Parakeet. It will be a cold start up here, but bird activity should be high and, aside from the parakeet and bush tyrant, we can expect to find a host of other endemics including Santa Marta Mountain Tanager, Santa Marta Warbler and Rusty-headed Spinetail, as well as the chattering Yellow-crowned Whitestart. There are three incredibly skulking species that we will also hope to lure out: Santa Marta Antpitta and Brown-rumped Tapaculo, plus an endemic form of Rufous Antpitta that is almost certainly a ‘new’ species.

Other birds of particular interest to watch for include Santa Marta Wood Wren (a high elevation subspecies of the Grey-breasted Wood Wren), Scaly-naped Parrot, Scarlet-fronted Parakeet, Yellow-bellied Chat-tyrant and, on rare occasions, the majestic Black-and-chestnut Eagle soaring overhead.

If the weather is clear, we could be treated to spectacular views of the three highest peaks of the impressive Santa Marta range, which are permanently snow-capped. Reaching almost 6000m (19,685ft), the summits Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar are the highest mountains in Colombia.

Below our lodge, the forest is taller and a little drier, with a range of different species to be found - and even more birds with ‘Santa Marta’ in their names! Feathered gems that put gleams of lust into the eyes of visiting birders here include White-tipped Quetzal, White-throated Toucanet, Golden-breasted Fruiteater and the much-desired Santa Marta Blossomcrown: recently split, this delightful little 'hummer' with its cream and rufous cap and rusty tail tip was seen at a ‘lek’ on both our previous visits. We will look for more mid-elevation endemics, among them Santa Marta Woodstar and Streak-capped Spinetail, whilst a fantastic supporting cast features Groove-billed Toucanet (birds here being of the sometimes split yellow-billed form), Red-billed Parrot (endemic race), Grey-throated Leaftosser and Rusty-breasted Antpitta.

Having returned to the lodge for lunch, our afternoons birding will be spent ‘mooching’ about the hotel grounds, enjoying the hummingbirds and taking short walks near the lodge for the likes of Golden-breasted Fruiteater, Masked Trogon (an endemic race) and Black-throated Tody-tyrant (yet another endemic race).

During our stay at El Dorado, we also have the chance to try some nocturnal birding, seeking the often-elusive Santa Marta Screech Owl (another newly described endemic) and Mottled Owl, and with a slim chance of encountering Grey-handed Night Monkeys, which can sometimes be found in the vicinity of the lodge. Three nights El Dorado Lodge

Day 13
RETURN TO BARRANQUILLA, FLY BOGOTÁ
After breakfast and one last chance to stroll about the busy gardens of El Dorado, all too soon it will be time to leave this magical place and take our 4WDs back down the bumpy track, via Minca, to the outskirts of Santa Marta city, where we transfer to our air-conditioned bus.

The coast road takes us back to Barranquilla, but not before stopping en route for lunch and the chance to stretch our legs and have a last look at the lagoons and shoreline. Squadrons of Brown Pelicans sweep past over the sea, with awesome Magnificent Frigatebirds for company, whilst roosting flocks of terns hold Gull-billed and many Yellow-billed, with Cabot’s and Royal Terns for good measure. Willet, Ruddy Turnstone and Collared Plover - no doubt with a few Wilson’s and Semipalmated Plovers thrown in – feature among a nice variety of shorebirds, too.

Our flight from Barranquilla to Bogotá departs late afternoon, so we will return to the airport in good time to check in before heading south.

Landing back at Bogotá, we transfer the short distance to our comfortable city hotel for one final night in Colombia. Night Bogotá

Day 14
BOGOTÁ MARSHES, FLY LONDON
Our last morning in Colombia offers a great opportunity to visit La Florida and the famous Bogotá marshes - home to the endangered Bogotá Rail, which is most active early in the morning. The open, urban wetlands of Bogotá boast an endemic avifauna that also includes the near-threatened Subtropical Doradito and the endangered Apolinar's Wren, which is endemic to the Andes of central Colombia.

The few wetlands that still exist in and around the capital are extremely threatened habitats in Colombia and the populations of several endemic species have declined significantly. Noble Snipe, Spot-flanked Gallinule and Andean Ruddy Duck are possible here. Yellow-hooded Blackbirds are usually easily seen, while Silvery-throated Spinetail and Rufous-browed Conebill may be found in the surrounding eucalypts and parkland as Brown-bellied Swallows zap busily overhead and the very common Great Thrush jumps about on the ground.

After an excellent final morning and lunch in Bogotá, we collect our bags and return to the airport in good time to check in for our overnight flight home.

Day 15
ARRIVE LONDON
We arrive in London in the early evening, where our birdwatching tour to Colombia concludes.

black chested mountain tanager colombia Brian Small 2015

Another stunner at Chingaza!... Black-chested Mountain Tanager © Brian Small, Limosa Holidays

What To Expect

Limosa’s Colombia birding tour is an adventure that begins in the High Andes near Bogotá, searching for rare endemics and specialities such as Bogotá Rail, Turquoise Dacnis and Black-chested Mountain Tanager.

From there, we fly north to Colombia’s Caribbean coast and travel inland to explore the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta - one of the world’s endemic hotspots - and where the highpoint of our birdwatching tour to Colombia will be a three-night stay at the remote El Dorado Lodge, seeking many unique species.

With more than 1900 species recorded, Colombia’s bird list is the largest for any country in the world... up to a quarter of which we should see on this superb two-week bird tour to Colombia!

We will be making early starts most days as bird activity in Colombia is at its best during the first three hours of daylight. These will be tempered with leisurely lunches, afternoon siestas (where possible) and occasional relaxed afternoons, plus early finishes in the evenings.

At Chingaza, we shall be birding for a short time at elevations up to 3500m (11,500ft), but most of our birding will be done at lower elevations.

Please note that the drive up from Minca to El Dorado Lodge, and also above here to the San Lorenzo ridge, is necessarily by 4WD vehicles and very bumpy as the road is extremely rough.

In July, the weather on this tour will range from cool (even cold at times) in the mountains, to hot and humid on the arid Caribbean coast.

Colombia has a tropical to temperate climate (due to the effects of altitude). Our July tour runs during one of the two Colombian ‘dry seasons’, but note that rainfall can (and does!) of course occur year round in the mountains and rainforests. It can often be cool and misty in the mountains and cloudforest, and it will be cold and breezy in the early morning on the paramo at Chingaza, where warm, waterproof clothing - including gloves, scarves and a warm hat - will be required.

In contrast, our birding on the Caribbean coast near Barranquilla will be in hot to very hot conditions. However, as we rise up into the Sierra de Santa Marta (at Minca and El Dorado Lodge) most of our time in the north will be spent in pleasant to cool upland temperatures.

Take note that warm and waterproof clothing - including gloves, scarf and a warm hat - will be required at times on this tour.

Bird photography is generally tricky in the forests due to low light levels. Good to excellent photographic opportunities in more open habitats - especially at feeders around the lodges, and at the coast.

Birds

360-460 species

Accommodation

13 nights accommodation at good, medium grade hotels and lodges in Columbia. All rooms have private facilities.

Our hotels at Minca and Santa Marta are especially characterful and geared up for wildlife watchers. Hotel Minca is newly refurbished and has a fine view and setting, with numerous hummingbird feeders to enjoy; El Dorado Lodge, our base in the Santa Marta Mountains, is fairly simple with accommodation in cabins accessed down a flight of stairs and a path. The rooms are lovely and kept very clean - and the birding here is out of this world!

Meals

All main meals are included in the tour price, commencing with dinner on arrival in Bogotá on Day 1 and concluding with lunch there prior to our flight home again on Day 14.

Food is generally good in Colombia, with large portions! Try a traditional Colombian Paisa lunch – with beans and rice, pork and banana. Steaming mugs of hot chocolate are another a great Colombian tradition to look forward to!

Walking

Colombia is a mountainous country so expect some trails to be steeper in parts - but these are always taken slowly, at normal birding pace with frequent stops to bird. Wherever possible, we aim to drive uphill in our vehicle and walk back down the slope.

The walking effort is mostly easy, but moderate at times due to the terrain and especially altitude.

We start our tour at Bogotá, which is situated at an elevaton of 2500m (8,200ft), but soon descend to 1200m (3,800ft) to help acclimatise for the first two days before returning to Bogotá. From there, we take a day trip to Chingaza, where we shall be birding at elevations from 2600m (8,500ft) up to the paramo zone at 3500m (10,500ft) – we tend to start high and walk back down the road here.

Maximum elevation this tour: 3500m (11,000ft).

As one would expect, rainforest trails can sometimes be wet, muddy and/or slippery underfoot, so sturdy waterproof walking shoes or lightweight boots with stout corrugated soles for grip are essential.

Travel

We use the scheduled services of Lufthansa or similar for the international flights on this tour, according to best schedule and availability at the time. All involve a change of planes in Europe en route (e.g. Frankfurt or Madrid).

[Note that although the national carrier Avianca offers direct flights from London to Bogotá, the timings are not appealing.]

Our tour price also includes two domestic flights within Colombia, Bogotá-Barranquilla return.

Ground Transport   By comfortable Mercedes Sprinter or similar 14-seater minibus, driven by a local driver and equipped with air-conditioning.

In the Santa Marta Mountains, we must use 4WD Toyota Landcruisers or similar as the unmade roads are very rough in places. Please note that rides in these will be bumpy and can be a little uncomfortable at times, and the going is slow, but the distances to be covered are not great.

white bellied woodstar colombia 2015 Brian Small

The tiny but beautiful White-bellied Woodstar puts in an appearance at Jardin Encantado © Brian Small, Limosa Holidays

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